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Distance measurement using Arduino and HC-SR04 sensor

Distance measurement with Arduino sensor HC-SR04 US-015

Presents sensors provide distance measurement using ultrasound. The sensor sends out a wave, which after reflection from the obstacle, it returns to him. Computing the time between transmission and reception of the pulse, we can determine the distance to the object.

 

We will need the following items:

 

Connect the sensor with Arduino:

The sensor using the Arduino you should connect the layout as follows:

 

Pin BH1750Pin Arduino
VCC5 V
GNDGND
TRIG2
ECHO

3

 

Connection diagram of ultrasonic sensor with Arduino Uno.

Program for Arduino

In the example, we used the following code:

 

int Trig = 2; //pin 2 of Arduino is connected to the contact sensor Trigger 
int Echo = 3; //Arduino pin 3 is connected to the contact sensor Echo 
int CM; //distance in cm 
long TIME; //duration of the reverse pulse in the uS 

void setup() 
{ 
 Serial.begin(9600); //inicjalizaja monitor serial port 
 pinMode(Trig, OUTPUT); //setting Arduino pin 2 as output 
 pinMode(Echo, INPUT); //setting pin 3 in Arduino as input 

 Serial.println("Test of spacing"); 
} 

void loop() 
{ 
 pomiar_odleglosci(); //measure the distance 
 Serial.print("Distance: "); //display results on the screen in a loop every 200 MS 
 Serial.print(CM); 
 Serial.println(" cm"); 
 delay(200); 
} 

void pomiar_odleglosci () 
{ 
 digitalWrite(Trig, LOW); //setting the high status on 2 uS pulse inicjalizujacy - see the documentation 
 delayMicroseconds(2); 
 digitalWrite(Trig, HIGH); //setting the high position for 10 uS pulse inicjalizujacy - see the documentation 
 delayMicroseconds(15); 
 digitalWrite(Trig, LOW); 
 digitalWrite(Echo, HIGH); 
 TIME = pulseIn(Echo, HIGH); 
 CM = DURATION / 58; //width of the reflected pulse in the uS divided by 58 is the distance in centimeters - see the documentation 
} 

 

To calculate the distance to the object, the response time is common to 58 (according to the documentation). Why so much? This value is derived by the formula:

 

TIME / [1/(0.34 / 2 )/10]

 

  • the value in square brackets is equal to 58:
    • 0.34 - wave velocity in m/MS (340 m/sec) divided by 2 (since the wave has come a long way in the two sides).
    • In addition, all safely by 10 to change millimetres to centimeters

 

The result of the program can be viewed on the serial monitor:

 

A screenshot of the serial monitor.