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The Peltier Elements

Each device powered by any energy source is characterized by a parameter called energy efficiency, which determines the extent to which in a given process the energy supplied in it is converted into output energy. A thermoelectric cooling cell is composed of a layer of semiconductors sandwiched between two ceramic electrodes in a similar way to the electrodes separated by a dielectric, which are a simple electrical capacitor. Peltier cells It is used in various applications, such as cooling processors in computers and as thermoelectric voltage sources. The Peltier modules offered by the Botland store operate on the principle of a small heat pump. By connecting a DC power source to the module cladding, heat is transferred from one cladding to another. This creates a temperature difference. Peltier cells are often used e.g. in industrial applications, portable fridge-freezers, electromedical equipment, as well as in measuring instruments.

Peltier cells - how it works

The thermoelectric cell in its principle of operation is based on the Peltier phenomenon, which consists of transferring thermal energy between elements made of two different materials. The Peltier module can operate in cooling, heating or as a heat pump mode, in which the direction of energy transfer depends on the polarity of the voltage determining the direction of the current flow. Thermoelectric cooling cells convert an electrical voltage (electrical potential difference) into a temperature difference. This manifests itself in the phenomenon of increasing temperature (heating) on ​​one facing and dropping temperature (cooling) on ​​the other facing. Due to this phenomenon, Peltier cells can be used to both heat and cool objects and thus generate electricity resulting from the temperature difference on the cell facings. In this way, the Peltier modules can function as simple temperature regulators.

The Peltier thermoelectric cell - what can you use it for?

The Peltier modules of the TEC1 series can be additionally equipped with a heat sink, which optimizes the dissipation of excess heat. By selecting the appropriate size heatsink and a voltage source, Peltier cells can be used as an element supporting the cooling of PCs that work in conditions of increased load on the processor and graphics card. However, in refrigerators and freezers for storing food and drinks, the aspect of correct temperature regulation is also very important to prevent the formation of dangerous microorganisms that make food unfit for consumption. For this purpose, it is also worth retrofitting the refrigerator with a Peltier element. The optimal temperature of food, but also other goods (e.g. electronics) requiring specific environmental conditions, must also be maintained at the right level during the transport phase. The Peltier modules of the TEC1 series ensure that the precise value of the ambient temperature is maintained at a stable level, up to 66ºC, with a nominal hot lining temperature of 25ºC. Peltier cells can also be used in research laboratories, where high ambient temperature stability is required, which very often determines the results of tests and measurements. Besides, Peltier modules offered by the Botland store have proven themselves in thousands of medical applications as well as in optical and photonic transmission systems. When using the TEC1 series Peltier cells, it is important to follow a few operating recommendations. First of all, the maximum permissible operating temperature of the module must not exceed 138ºC. The maximum operating current and voltage must also not be exceeded. Based on the tests, the projected maximum lifespan is 200,000 hours and the premature failure rate for TEC1 modules is less than 0.5%. When using Peltier cells in an environment with high salinity, it is important to attach additional insulation to protect the cell.