A capacitor is an electronic element, passive, energy storage in an electric field. It is a component with two terminals. The effect of the capacitor is known as capacitance. Although there is some capacitance between any two electrical wires that are close to each other, a capacitor is an element designed to produce a certain capacitance between its terminals. These items, like most of the passive elements, have a huge number of applications in passive and active systems, such as filters, elements, resonant circuits, etc. the Condenser is one of the main elements of the draft electronic.


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Capacitors - Universal capacitive elements

The shape and design of the capacitors are very diverse. There are many types of these elements, which are widely used in electronics. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductor, often in the form of metal plates or foil separated by a dielectric. Early forms of condensers emerged in the 40s of the XVIII century, when European experimenters did find that the electric charge can be stored in glass vessels filled with water, which became known as banks Lejdejskie.

The device and principle of operation of capacitor

A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a dielectric nieprzewodzącym. Can be vacuum or any other insulator. Examples dielektryków used in these elements are glass, air, paper, plastic, ceramics, etc. In accordance with Coulomb's law, charge on one cover, provides a force on the charge carriers in the other cover, attracting the opposite charge and repels carriers of the same goods. Thus, the second cover induced will be a counter-weight. The guidebooks say, therefore, equal in magnitude and opposite a sign to the charges on their surfaces. The presence of the dielectric prevents the movement of cargo and supports an electric field.

Different types of capacitors

In commercially available capacitors of various types. They differ in the type of dielectric, structure of cover and the type of housing. All these elements affect the characteristics of the item and its scope. The available values range from very low (in respect of certain pikofaradów) superkodensatorów volume of about 5 KP. As a rule, above about 1 mikrofarada, are used almost exclusively electrolytic capacitors due to their small size and low cost compared to other types of relevant capacity if their relatively poor stability, life span and appearance of polarization lead to the fact that they are not suitable for this application.

The main parameters of the capacitors

The main parameter which describes a capacitor, its capacitance. This value is expressed in faradach; she says about how much electric charge can be placed in this element. Capacity is selected for a particular application of the capacitor. The second parameter is maximum operating voltage. Each capacitor, taking into account their structure based on thin dielectric layer between the conductive cover, can only work to an acceptable voltage level. When it is exceeded can occur dielectric breakdown and short circuit of the capacitor plates. In this system maximum rated voltage of the capacitor must be no lower than appearing on the covers at any moment of tension, including jumps, and even short-term increase.

Examples of applications

Currently, capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current, providing current flow. In an analog system, the capacitor element filters, in resonant circuits designed for operation of system at specified frequencies, and in systems of transmission of electricity, stabilize voltage and power flow. The property of storing energy in capacitors were also used as part of dynamic memory in early computers.