Gyroscopes are measuring devices that perform two functions simultaneously – they maintain an angular position on the basis of momentum conservation and measure this position. The first gyroscope was invented in 1852 by the French physicist Jean Foucault. The gyro's operating principle is based on high rotational speed and low friction in the bearings. These types of devices are used in many machines, automatic devices, measuring, industrial and others. Naturally, they are also used by enthusiasts of programmable electronics to construct more advanced projects. Classical gyroscopes include directional gyroscopes, electronic and speed gyroscopes. Currently, the most common type of gyroscopes are small gyroscopic systems installed in modern mobile phones. These devices are also found in cameras and drones.

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Gyroscopes – great navigation aids

Gyroscopes are instruments whose task is to measure and maintain the angular position of an object. Gyroscopes are most often used in objects that do not usually rotate too fast around their axis. Airplanes and helicopters rotate a few degrees on their axis when turning or changing altitude (acrobatic flights, of course, are another issue). By detecting these slight deviations, the gyroscopes help stabilize the flight of the aircraft. Therefore, they are also implemented in all drones. A change in the acceleration or linear speed of the vessel does not adversely affect the measurement of the angular displacement of the machine. For these reasons, gyroscopes are commonly used as navigation aids.

Gyroscopes and MEMS technology

The MEMS gyroscopes measure the angular velocity, but do not take up much space. Such gyroscopes can be used to determine the orientation of an object and are successfully used in autonomous navigation systems in land and air traffic. This also applies to space. What's the easiest way to use a gyroscope?

Imagine a bicycle wheel that turns at one revolution per second. This means the bicycle wheel rotates at an angular speed of 360 degrees per second. How to check the direction of wheel rotation using the measuring method? It is with the help of a gyroscope - preferably one based on MEMS technology - that allows three-dimensional measurement of the angle of rotation (X, Y and Z axes). You can also find gyroscopes that enable measurement in one or two axes. However, it was the three-axis gyroscopes in the form of a small plate with electronics that turned out to be a solution characterized by low price, reliability and high popularity among DIY enthusiasts. A gyroscope is a piece of equipment that every DIY enthusiast and beginner electronics should be familiar with.

Many kind of uses, many different gyroscopes

Classic gyroscopes that are installed in industrial machines take up a lot of space and have a complicated structure. There are electronic gyros, directional gyros and speed gyros. Small gyroscopes are mounted in integrated circuits. You certainly have such a gyroscope if you have a smartphone anyway!

If you want to develop your robot’s construction in terms of its stability, balancing capabilities when stopping, moving or standing still on an uneven surface, then a great solution will be to use a small MEMS gyroscope, which by measuring the angular deviation of the robot from the equilibrium position, will send information to the Arduino, which by controlling with appropriate motors and servos, will put the robot in the correct position, preventing it from accidentally tipping over. So, if you are looking for such a device because you want to replace it in a drone or camera, or you are building your own DIY project, then be sure to use the Botland store offer!

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