The encoder is a device, Electromechanical, that converts the angular position or motion of a shaft or axis, on the output signal, analog or digital. Such devices are widely used in virtually every electronics sector. The sensors will find so computer hardware – hard drives, printers, and even to cool the processor fans – in APPLIANCES for the stabilization of the rotation speed of the different kinds of electric motors and the automotive industry to measure and regulate the speed of the internal combustion engine.
In many systems, industrial automation and control systems, you must monitor the rotational motion of shafts and other mechanical elements or calculate a speed of rotation of the electric motors or the exhaust. For this purpose, a sensor device for measuring rotational motion. These items are different features and options. Applicable in various cases, from the exact angle measurement, with the possibility of immediate, absolute angle measurement with a resolution below one degree, to economic systems that monitor the speed of rotation, for example, of the engine, applying a single electric pulse per revolution of the controlled shaft.
There are two main types of encoders – absolute and increase. The output of the sensor indicates the current absolute position of the shaft, which makes it a Converter corner. Sensor output inkrementalnego provides information about the movement of the shaft, which usually is processed in a different location on information such as location, speed and distance. The absolute encoder stores the location information, even after power-off. His position is all the time available immediately after turning on. This eliminates the need for regular calibration of the instrument. And the sensor in prirodnih only measures changes in position. Does not track, however, the absolute position. As a result of mechanical system may require regular calibration.
Proximity sensors use technology of the Hall effect sensors to detect magnetic fields. Round the matrix of magnetic sensors detects a component perpendicular to the magnetic field of the movable magnet. The signals are then summed up and amplified in the chip. Are generated two signals – sinusoidal and kosinusoidalny, when the magnet rotates. Signals with sine and cosine calculates the angle of displacement. Systems such as AM4096 use fast digital interpolatory. These sensors feature digital interfaces to connect such a system, for example microcontroller or computer jednopłytkowego.