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Sensors odbiciowe

Sensor diffusion sensor - Among the thousands of projects, robots, looks especially interesting models of type line follower. The task of such a robot is a traffic route in accordance with the mileage painted on the surface of the line. Most often, robot line follower is divided into two categories: tracking a white line on a black background and Vice versa – track black line on a white background. So the robot was able to correctly track the trajectory of movement must be installed in the appropriate equipment. For food and drive the robot line follower should be equipped with controls and sensors for warning signs of potential obstacles to movement. This role is perfect sensor diffusion sensor.

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The principle of operation and connection of the sensors odbiciowych

One of the most easy to implement the optical sensor is an infrared led connected with fototranzystorem. Fototranzystor connected to the power supply voltage through a resistor, creating a voltage divider. The output of the divider is obtained a voltage of 0 V to 5V typically as a way of reflection of infrared radiation, while a lower value indicates a more powerful reflection of infrared radiation. The analog output of the sensor providing the resulting voltage, can be connected to further read in different ways. The easiest way to do this by connecting the sensor output to an analog input of the ADC Converter in the database or to the input of a bistable using the comparator software. There is also a solution, which sensor is connected internal comparator with nastawialnym the threshold of the state change logic (e.g., chip LM393). The state of the comparator output, read input binary microcontroller. Given the small size of sensors, they can easily be connected in parallel in the form of bars, which allows easy detection of edges, walls and other obstacles, including the ability to measure distances from them.

The measurement accuracy of the sensors odbiciowych

Decisions such as the laser sensor or the sensor optoelektroniczny have a fairly good measurement accuracy, and are proven in many projects, Hobbies. However, to get the best accuracy of the sensor in the application, which will work, it should nakalibrować. Sensor calibration approximation is an important process because there is no perfect measurement sensors, and in spite of repeated production technology, two such sensors can output different voltages, even if they operate in the same environmental conditions. The materials of the sensors, and passes through the natural processes of aging, which is associated with the need for periodic re-calibration. Calibration is best done programmatically, for example, in the program code on the Arduino that interacts with the sensor. Perfect nakalibrowanie sensor in the case where the measured distance value corresponds to the voltage at the output of the sensor approximately in direct proportion.