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Operational amplifiers

The popularity of an operational amplifier as a structural element in analog circuits is due to the versatility of this device. The operational amplifiers work in such a way that they use negative feedback. As a result of changing the characteristics of the op amp's feedback loop circuit, its parameters such as gain, input and output impedance, bandwidth can be changed. These parameters are determined by external components and depend only slightly on temperature coefficients or design tolerances in the op-amp itself. Due to this fact, these elements are very versatile and are willingly used by many designers of electronic, robotic and automatic systems. Op-amps come in handy when you're working on intermediate to advanced DIY electronic projects and more.

Below we present all the operational amplifiers available in the Botland online store. Now choose the right device for you and your project, and if you have any questions - contact us!

Operational amplifier – a versatile device for building analog circuits

An operational amplifier is a multi-stage DC differential amplifier. The main feature of this device is that it uses a differential voltage gain. Most often, such devices are designed to work with an external feedback circuit, which determines the main properties of the entire system.

The use of operational amplifiers as circuit blocks greatly simplifies their construction, regardless of whether the amplifiers used are integrated circuits or are composed of discrete elements. Therefore, generally speaking, an operational amplifier can be treated as if it were an ideal differential amplifier and system design becomes truly hassle-free. Only at a later stage in the design is the allowable range of parameters for each operational amplifier selected. This type of approach allows not only to simplify the device design process, but also to simplify its modeling at the stage of prototype creation.

How do operational amplifiers work and what are they for? 

In order to explain how operational amplifiers work, some simplifying will be more than needed. It can be said that an operational amplifier is a voltage amplifier with a differential input, which is DC coupled. In this case, the input consists of two signals - positive, non-inverting, and negative, inverting.

In turn, the output voltage is asymmetric and equal to the difference between the non-inverting and the inverting inputs, amplified by A-fold (where A is the gain of the element in open loop). This parameter is high for most operational amplifiers and is often 100,000 or more. Operational amplifiers are advanced devices that are unlikely to be used for simple electronic design models. These systems can also operate in closed loop feedback. By introducing appropriate elements into the loop circuit, it is possible to obtain systems with lower gain, non-linear elements.

Typical operational amplifiers circuits 

A closed-loop operational amplifier can generally operate in two configurations. The first variant is to work as a non-inverting amplifier with a signal fed to the non-inverting input, i.e. with a plus. The second variant is to work as an inverting amplifier and in this case we deal with a signal fed to the inverting input, i.e. with a minus.

The gain of such a system depends on many elements of the feedback loop. In the first case it is positive and in the second it is negative, which causes a phase shift of the signal by 180 degrees (complete inversion). If elements such as capacitors or coils are included in the feedback loop, it becomes possible to modify the frequency response of the loop. As a result, the work of the entire amplifier will be modified. Such activities then allow the construction of active filters with the use of operational amplifiers. In addition, there are specialized circuits of operational amplifiers, such as differentiating and integrating circuits, adders and others.

Operational amplifiers are advanced electronic devices. In Botland you can buy such an amplifier with the guarantee that it will be a safe and functional product. However, if you need help with the election or have any questions - please do not hesitate to contact us!